Full Text Teacher Performance Expectations (TPEs)

A. Making Subject Matter Comprehensible

TPE 1: Specific Pedagogical Skills for Subject Matter Instruction

Background Information: TPE 1. TPE 1 is divided into two categories intended to take into account the differentiated teaching assignments of multiple subject and single subject teachers. Multiple subject credential holders work in self-contained classrooms and are responsible for instruction in several subject areas; single subject teachers work in departmentalized settings and have more specialized assignments. These categories are Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Multiple Subject Teaching Assignments (1-A), and Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Single Subject Teaching Assignments (1-B).

TPE 1A: Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Multiple Subject Teaching Assignments Teaching Reading-Language Arts in a Multiple Subject Assignment

Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in English-Language Arts (K8). They understand how to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development; reading comprehension; literary response and analysis; writing strategies and applications; written and oral English Language conventions; and listening and speaking strategies and applications. They know how to strategically plan and schedule instruction to ensure that students meet or exceed the standards. Candidates create a classroom environment where students learn to read and write, comprehend and compose, appreciate and analyze, and perform and enjoy the language arts. They understand how to make language (e.g., vocabulary, forms, uses) comprehensible to students and the need for students to master foundational skills as a gateway to using all forms of language as tools for thinking, learning, and communicating. They understand how to use instructional materials that include a range of textual, functional and recreational texts and how to teach high quality literature and expository text. They understand that the advanced skills of comprehending narrative and informational texts and literary response and analysis, and the creation of eloquent prose, all depend on a foundation of solid vocabulary, decoding, and word-recognition skills.

Candidates teach students how to use visual structures such as graphic organizers or outlines to comprehend or produce text, how to comprehend or produce narrative, expository, persuasive and descriptive texts, how to comprehend or produce the complexity of writing forms, purposes, and organizational patterns, and how to have a command of written and oral English-language conventions. They know how to determine the skill level of students through the use of meaningful indicators of reading and language arts proficiency prior to instruction, how to determine whether students are making adequate progress on skills and concepts taught directly, and how to determine the effectiveness of instruction and students’ proficiency after instruction.

  • Teaching Mathematics in a Multiple Subject Assignment - Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in mathematics (K-8). They enable students to understand basic mathematical computations, concepts, and symbols, to use these tools and processes to solve common problems, and apply them to novel problems. They help students understand different mathematical topics and make connections among them. Candidates help students solve real-world problems using mathematical reasoning and concrete, verbal, symbolic, and graphic representations. They provide a secure environment for taking intellectual risks and approaching problems in multiple ways. Candidates model and encourage students to use multiple ways of approaching mathematical problems, and they encourage discussion of different solution strategies. They foster positive attitudes toward mathematics, and encourage student curiosity, flexibility, and persistence in solving mathematical problems.
  • Teaching Science in a Multiple Subject Assignment - Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in science (K-8). They balance the focus of instruction between science information, concepts, and investigations. Their explanations, demonstrations, and class activities serve to illustrate science concepts and principles, scientific investigation, and experimentation. Candidates emphasize the importance of accuracy, precision, and estimation.
  • Teaching History-Social Science in a Multiple Subject Assignment - Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in history-social science (K-8). They enable students to learn and use basic analytic thinking skills in history and social science while attaining the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They use timelines and maps to give students a sense of temporal and spatial scale. Candidates teach students how social science concepts and themes provide insights into historical periods and cultures. They help students understand events and periods from multiple perspectives by using simulations, case studies, cultural artifacts, works of art and literature, cooperative projects, and student research activities.

TPE 1B: Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Single Subject Teaching Assignments

  • Teaching English-Language Arts in a Single Subject Assignment - Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in English-Language Arts (Grades 7-12). They understand how to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development; reading comprehension; literary response and analysis; writing strategies and applications; written and oral English Language conventions; and listening and speaking strategies and applications. They know how to strategically plan and schedule instruction to ensure that students meet or exceed the standards. They understand how to make language (e.g., vocabulary, forms, uses) comprehensible to students and the need for students to master foundational skills as a gateway to using all forms of language as tools for thinking, learning and communicating. They understand how to teach the advanced skills of research-based discourse; incorporate technology into the language arts as a tool for conducting research or creating finished manuscripts and multimedia presentations; focus on analytical critique of text and of a variety of media; and provide a greater emphasis on the language arts as applied to work and careers. Candidates teach students how to comprehend and produce complex text, how to comprehend the complexity of writing forms, purposes, and organizational patterns, and how to have a command of written and oral English-language conventions. They know how to determine the skill level of students through the use of meaningful indicators of reading and language arts proficiency prior to instruction, how to determine whether students are making adequate progress on skills and concepts taught directly, and how to determine the effectiveness of instruction and students’ proficiency after instruction.
  • Teaching Mathematics in a Single Subject Assignment - Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Mathematics demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in mathematics (Grades 7-12). They enable students to understand basic mathematical computations, concepts, and symbols, to use them to solve common problems, and to apply them to novel problems. They help students understand different mathematical topics and make connections among them. Candidates help students solve real-world problems using mathematical reasoning and concrete, verbal, symbolic, and graphic representations. They provide a secure environment for taking intellectual risks and approaching problems in multiple ways. Candidates model and encourage students to use multiple ways of approaching mathematical problems, and they encourage discussion of different solution strategies. They foster positive attitudes toward mathematics, and encourage student curiosity, flexibility, and persistence in solving mathematical problems. 

    Additionally, Single Subject Candidates help students in Grades 7-12 to understand mathematics as a logical system that includes definitions, axioms, and theorems, and to understand and use mathematical notation and advanced symbols. They assign and assess work through progress-monitoring and summative assessments that include illustrations of student thinking such as open-ended questions, investigations, and projects.
  • Teaching Science in a Single Subject Assignment - Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Science demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in science (Grades 7-12). They balance the focus of instruction between science information, concepts, and principles. Their explanations, demonstrations, and class activities serve to illustrate science concepts, and principles, scientific investigation, and experimentation. Candidates emphasize the importance of accuracy, precision, and estimation. Candidates encourage students to pursue science interests, especially students from groups underrepresented in science careers. When live animals are present in the classroom, candidates teach students to provide ethical care. They demonstrate sensitivity to students' cultural and ethnic backgrounds in designing science instruction. 

    Additionally, Single Subject Candidates guide, monitor and encourage students during investigations and experiments. They demonstrate and encourage use of multiple ways to measure and record scientific data, including the use of mathematical symbols. Single Subject Candidates structure and sequence science instruction to enhance students’ academic knowledge to meet or exceed the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They establish and monitor procedures for the care, safe use, and storage of equipment and materials, and for the disposal of potentially hazardous materials.
  • Teaching History-Social Science in a Single subject Assignment - Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in History-Social Science demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in history-social science (Grades 7-12). They enable students to learn and use analytic thinking skills in history and social science while attaining the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They use timelines and maps to reinforce students’ sense of temporal and spatial scale. Candidates teach students how social science concepts and themes provide insights into historical periods and cultures. They help students understand events and periods from multiple perspectives by using simulations, case studies, cultural artifacts, works of art and literature, cooperative projects, and student research activities. 

    Additionally, History-Social Science Single Subject Candidates connect essential facts and information to broad themes, concepts and principles, and they relate history-social science content to current or future issues. They teach students how cultural perspectives inform and influence understandings of history. They select and use age-appropriate primary and secondary documents and artifacts to help students understand a historical period, event, region or culture. Candidates ask questions and structure academic instruction to help students recognize prejudices and stereotypes. They create classroom environments that support the discussion of sensitive issues (e.g., social, cultural, religious, race, and gender issues), and encourage students to reflect on and share their insights and values. They design activities to counter illustrate multiple viewpoints on issues. Candidates monitor the progress of students as they work to understand, debate, and critically analyze social science issues, data, and research conclusions from multiple perspectives.

B. Assessing Student Learning

TPE 2: Monitoring Student Learning During Instruction

Candidates for a Teaching Credential use progress monitoring at key points during instruction to determine whether students are progressing adequately toward achieving the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They pace instruction and reteach content based on evidence gathered using assessment strategies such as questioning students and examining student work and products. Candidates anticipate, check for, and address common student misconceptions and misunderstandings.

TPE 3: Interpretation and Use of Assessments

Candidates for a Teaching Credential understand and use a variety of informal and formal, as well as formative and summative assessments, to determine students’ progress and plan instruction. They know about and can appropriately implement the state-adopted student assessment program. Candidates understand the purposes and uses of different types of diagnostic instruments, including entry level, progress-monitoring and summative assessments. They use multiple measures, including information from families, to assess student knowledge, skills, and behaviors. They know when and how to use specialized assessments based on students' needs. Candidates know about and can appropriately use informal classroom assessments and analyze student work. They teach students how to use self-assessment strategies. Candidates provide guidance and time for students to practice these strategies.

Candidates understand how to familiarize students with the format of standardized tests. They know how to appropriately administer standardized tests, including when to make accommodations for students with special needs. They know how to accurately interpret assessment results of individuals and groups in order to develop and modify instruction.

Candidates interpret assessment data to identify the level of proficiency of English language learners in English as well as in the students’ primary language. They give students specific, timely feedback on their learning, and maintain accurate records summarizing student achievement. They are able to explain, to students and to their families, student academic and behavioral strengths, areas for academic growth, promotion and retention policies, and how a grade or progress report is derived. Candidates can clearly explain to families how to help students achieve the curriculum.

C. Engaging and Supporting Students in Learning

TPE 4: Making Content Accessible

Candidates for Teaching Credentials incorporate specific strategies, teaching/instructional activities, procedures and experiences that address state-adopted academic content standards for students in order to provide a balanced and comprehensive curriculum. They use instructional materials to reinforce state-adopted academic content standards for students and they prioritize and sequence essential skills and strategies in a logical, coherent manner relative to students' current level of achievement. They vary instructional strategies according to purpose and lesson content. To meet student academic learning needs, candidates explain content clearly and reinforce content in multiple ways, such as the use of written and oral presentation, manipulatives, physical models, visual and performing arts, diagrams, non-verbal communication, and computer technology. They provide opportunities and adequate time for students to practice and apply what they have learned. They distinguish between conversational and academic language, and develop student skills in using and understanding academic language. They teach students strategies to read and comprehend a variety of texts and a variety of information sources, in the subject(s) taught. They model active listening in the classroom. Candidates encourage student creativity and imagination. They motivate students and encourage student effort. When students do not understand content, they take additional steps to foster access and comprehension for all learners. Candidates balance instruction by adjusting lesson designs relative to students’ current level of achievement.

TPE 5: Student Engagement

Candidates for Teaching Credentials clearly communicate instructional objectives to students. They ensure the active and equitable participation of all students. They ensure that students understand what they are to do during instruction and monitor student progress toward academic goals. If students are struggling and off-task, candidates examine why and use strategies to re-engage them. Candidates encourage students to share and examine points of view during lessons. They use community resources, student experiences, and applied learning activities to make instruction relevant. They extend the intellectual quality of student thinking by asking stimulating questions and challenging student ideas. Candidates teach students to respond to and frame meaningful questions.

TPE 6: Developmentally Appropriate Teaching Practices

Background information for TPE 6: TPE's describe knowledge, skills, and abilities for all credential candidates, and they underscore the importance of generically-effective strategies for teaching a broad range of students. The purpose of TPE 6 is to establish additional expectations that are of greatest importance in teaching students at distinct stages of child and adolescent development. It is not the intent of TPE 6 to describe practices that are appropriate or effective only at one developmental level. This TPE describes professional practices that are most commonly used and needed for students in each major phase of schooling, grades K-3, 4-8, and 9-12.*

TPE 6A: Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Grades K-3

During teaching assignments in Grades K-3, candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential understand how to create a structured day with opportunities for movement. They design academic activities that suit the attention span of young learners. Their instructional activities connect with the children’s immediate world; draw on key content from more than one subject area; and include hands-on experiences and manipulatives that help students learn. Candidates teach and model norms of social interactions (e.g., consideration, cooperation, responsibility, empathy). They understand that some children hold naive understandings of the world around them. Candidates provide educational experiences that help students develop more realistic expectations and understandings of their environment. They know how to make special plans for students who require extra help in exercising self-control among their peers or who have exceptional needs or abilities.

TPE 6B: Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Grades 4-8

During teaching assignments in Grades 4-8, candidates for a teaching credential build on students’ command of basic skills and understandings while providing intensive support for students who lack basic skills as defined in state-adopted academic content standards for students. They teach from grade-level texts. Candidates design learning activities to extend students’ concrete thinking and foster abstract reasoning and problem-solving skills. They help students develop learning strategies to cope with increasingly challenging academic curriculum. They assist students, as needed, in developing and practicing strategies for managing time and completing assignments. Candidates develop students’ skills for working in groups to maximize learning. They build on peer relationships and support students in trying new roles and responsibilities in the classroom. They support students' taking of intellectual risks such as sharing ideas that may include errors. Candidates distinguish between misbehavior and over-enthusiasm, and they respond appropriately to students who are testing limits and students who alternatively assume and reject responsibility.

* TPE 6 does not represent a comprehensive strategy for teaching students at any particular stage; the elements of TPE 6 are intended merely to supplement and not replace the broader range of pedagogical skills and abilities described in the TPE's

TPE 6C: Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Grades 9-12

During teaching assignments in Grades 9-12, candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential establish intellectually challenging academic expectations and provide opportunities for students to develop advanced thinking and problem-solving skills. They frequently communicate course goals, requirements, and grading criteria to students and families. They help students to understand connections between the curriculum and life beyond high school, and they communicate the consequences of academic choices in terms of future career, school and life options. Candidates support students in assuming increasing responsibility for learning, and encourage behaviors important for work such as being on time and completing assignments. They understand adolescence as a period of intense social peer pressure to conform, and they support signs of students’ individuality while being sensitive to what being "different” means for high school students.

TPE 7: Teaching English Learners

Candidates for a Teaching Credential know and can apply pedagogical theories, principles, and instructional practices for comprehensive instruction of English learners. They know and can apply theories, principles, and instructional practices for English Language Development leading to comprehensive literacy in English. They are familiar with the philosophy, design, goals, and characteristics of programs for English language development, including structured English immersion. They implement an instructional program that facilitates English language development, including reading, writing, listening and speaking skills, that logically progresses to the grade level reading/language arts program for English speakers. They draw upon information about students’ backgrounds and prior learning, including students' assessed levels of literacy in English and their first languages, as well as their proficiency in English, to provide instruction differentiated to students’ language abilities. They understand how and when to collaborate with specialists and para-educators to support English language development. Based on appropriate assessment information, candidates select instructional materials and strategies, including activities in the area of visual and performing arts, to develop students’ abilities to comprehend and produce English. They use English that extends students’ current level of development yet is still comprehensible. They know how to analyze student errors in oral and written language in order to understand how to plan differentiated instruction.

Candidates for a Teaching Credential know and apply pedagogical theories, principles and practices for the development of academic language, comprehension, and knowledge in the subjects of the core curriculum. They use systematic instructional strategies, including contextualizing key concepts, to make grade-appropriate or advanced curriculum content comprehensible to English learners. They allow students to express meaning in a variety of ways, including in their first language, and, if available, manage first language support such as para-educators, peers, and books.2 They use questioning strategies that model or represent familiar English grammatical constructions. They make learning strategies explicit.

Candidates understand how cognitive, pedagogical, and individual factors affect students’ language acquisition. They take these factors into account in planning lessons for English language development and for academic content.

Teachers are not expected to speak the students’ primary language, unless they hold an appropriate credential and teach in a bilingual classroom. The expectation is that they understand how to use available resources in the primary language, including students’ primary language skills, to support their learning of English and curriculum content.

D. Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for Students

TPE 8: Learning about Students

Candidates for a Teaching Credential draw upon an understanding of patterns of child and adolescent development to understand their students. Using formal and informal methods, they assess students’ prior mastery of academic language abilities, content knowledge, and skills, and maximize learning opportunities for all students. Through interpersonal interactions, they learn about students’ abilities, ideas, interests and aspirations. They encourage parents to become involved and support their efforts to improve student learning. They understand how multiple factors, including gender and health, can influence students’ behavior, and understand the connections between students’ health and their ability to learn. Based on assessment data, classroom observation, reflection and consultation, they identify students needing specialized instruction, including students whose physical disabilities, learning disabilities, or health status require instructional adaptations, and students who are gifted.

TPE 9: Instructional Planning

Candidates for a Teaching Credential plan instruction that is comprehensive in relation to the subject matter to be taught and in accordance with state-adopted academic content standards for students. They establish clear long-term and short-term goals for student learning, based on state and local standards for student achievement as well as on students’ current levels of achievement. They use explicit teaching methods such as direct instruction and inquiry to help students meet or exceed grade level expectations. They plan how to explain content clearly and make abstract concepts concrete and meaningful. They understand the purposes, strengths and limitations of a variety of instructional strategies, including examining student work, and they improve their successive uses of the strategies based on experience and reflection. They sequence instruction so the content to be taught connects to preceding and subsequent content. In planning lessons, they select or adapt instructional strategies, grouping strategies, and instructional material to meet student learning goals and needs. Candidates connect the content to be learned with students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds, experiences, interests, and developmental learning needs to ensure that instruction is comprehensible and meaningful. To accommodate varied student needs, they plan differentiated instruction. When support personnel, such as aides and volunteers are available, they plan how to use them to help students reach instructional goals.

E. Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning

TPE 10: Instructional Time

Candidates for a Teaching Credential allocate instructional time to maximize student achievement in relation to state-adopted academic content standards for students, instructional goals and scheduled academic tasks. They establish procedures for routine tasks and manage transitions to maximize instructional time. Based on reflection and consultation, they adjust the use of instructional time to optimize the learning opportunities and outcomes for all students.

TPE 11: Social Environment

Candidates for a Teaching Credential develop and maintain clear expectations for academic and social behavior. The candidates promote student effort and engagement and create a positive climate for learning. They know how to write and implement a student discipline plan. They know how to establish rapport with all students and their families for supporting academic and personal success through caring, respect, and fairness. Candidates respond appropriately to sensitive issues and classroom discussions. They help students learn to work responsibly with others and independently. Based on observations of students and consultation with other teachers, the candidate recognizes how well the social environment maximizes academic achievement for all students and makes necessary changes.

F. Developing as a Professional Educator

TPE 12: Professional, Legal, and Ethical Obligations

Candidates for a Teaching Credential take responsibility for student academic learning outcomes. They are aware of their own personal values and biases and recognize ways in which these values and biases affect the teaching and learning of students. They resist racism and acts of intolerance. Candidates appropriately manage their professional time spent in teaching responsibilities to ensure that academic goals are met. They understand important elements of California and federal laws and procedures pertaining to the education of English learners, gifted students, and individuals with disabilities, including implications for their placement in classrooms. Candidates can identify suspected cases of child abuse, neglect, or sexual harassment. They maintain a non-hostile classroom environment. They carry out laws and district guidelines for reporting such cases. They understand and implement school and district policies and state and federal law in responding to inappropriate or violent student behavior.

Candidates for a Teaching Credential understand and honor legal and professional obligations to protect the privacy, health, and safety of students, families, and other school professionals. They are aware of and act in accordance with ethical considerations and they model ethical behaviors for students. Candidates understand and honor all laws relating to professional misconduct and moral fitness.

TPE 13: Professional Growth

Candidates for a Teaching Credential evaluate their own teaching practices and subject matter knowledge in light of information about the state-adopted academic content standards for students and student learning. They improve their teaching practices by soliciting feedback and engaging in cycles of planning, teaching, reflecting, discerning problems, and applying new strategies. Candidates use reflection and feedback to formulate and prioritize goals for increasing their subject matter knowledge and teaching effectiveness.